Alabama Teeth-Whitening

Westphal v. Northcutt
Entrepreneurs Challenge Alabama’s Teeth-Whitening Monopoly

Teeth-whitening services are popular and increasingly available at spas, salons and shopping malls. Like many entrepreneurs, Keith Westphal and Joyce Osborn saw this demand and sought to meet it; both sold over-the-counter whitening products and provided a clean, comfortable place for customers to apply the product to their own teeth, just as they would at home. But in Alabama, Keith and Joyce could face jail time and crippling fines for selling the same products sold in stores or online.

A recent amendment to Alabama’s Dental Practice Act has made it a crime punishable by one year in jail and a $5,000 fine for anyone but a licensed dentist to offer the type of teeth-whitening services Keith and Joyce each offer. Unwilling to risk thousands of dollars in fines and time in jail, Joyce stopped distributing teeth-whitening products in Alabama, and Keith has been prohibited from expanding his North Carolina-based business into the Cotton State.

There is no health or safety reason to restrict the sale of teeth-whitening products to licensed dentists. In fact, teeth-whitening products are regulated by the FDA as cosmetics, which mean anyone—even a minor—can purchase them and apply them to their own teeth without a prescription and without supervision or instruction.

The real explanation for Alabama’s new restrictions on teeth-whitening services is old-fashioned special-interest politics. Dentists routinely charge four times as much (or even more) than non-dentists for teeth-whitening services similar to those offered by Keith and Joyce. So the dental cartel, rather than try to compete by lowering prices or improving their services, is teaming up with the government to put their competition out of business.

Alabama’s prohibition on non-dentist teeth whitening isn’t just bad policy that harms entrepreneurs and consumers—it’s unconstitutional. The Alabama Constitution protects the right to earn an honest living free from unreasonable regulations designed solely to benefit special interests. That’s why on April 30, 2013, the Institute for Justice teamed up with teeth-whitening entrepreneurs Keith Westphal and Joyce Osborn to file a constitutional lawsuit in Alabama state court to vindicate their right to earn an honest living.

With Alabama’s unemployment rate above seven percent, this case raises a constitutional question of vital importance: May the government prohibit entrepreneurs from selling safe, over-the-counter products that people use at home every day just to protect a group of politically favored insiders from honest competition?


Essential Background


Backgrounder on this case

Client Video

Latest Release: Alabama Supreme Court Upholds Dental Monopoly on Teeth Whitening (June 5, 2015)


Launch Release: Entrepreneurs Fight Back Against Teeth-Whitening Monopolies (April 30, 2013)

Legal Briefs and Decisions

Complaint (Filed April 30, 2013) 
Order Denying Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings (Filed October 1, 2013) 

Order Denying Motion for Summary Judgment (Filed October 3, 2014) 

Alabama Supreme Court Opinion (June 5, 2015) 

Case Timeline

Filed Lawsuit:


April 30, 2013

Court Filed:

Circuit Court for the 10th Judicial Circuit, Jefferson County


On appeal

Current Court

Alabama Supreme Court

 Next Key Date TBD

Additional Releases

Maps, Charts and Facts

Release: No Smiles in Alabama; State Judge Upholds Dentists' Monopoly on Teeth Whitening (October 3, 2014) Report: White Out: How Dental Industry Insiders Thwart Competition from Teeth-Whitening Entrepreneurs
Media Advisory: Entrepreneurs Head to Court in Challenge to Alabama Teeth-Whitening Monopoly (September 3, 2014)
Release: Alabama Teeth-Whitening Lawsuit Moves Forward; State law allows only licensed dentists to offer teeth-whitening services (October 2, 2013)

Op-eds, News Articles and Links

Article: Alabama High Court: Only Licensed Dentists Can Whiten Teeth Wall Street Journal (June 5, 2015)
Article: Judge upholds Alabama's teeth-whitening limits Associated Press (October 4, 2014)
Article: Judge rules Alabama dental law is constitutional; non-dentists can't provide teeth-whitening services (October 3, 2014)
Article: The law says "Do Not Pass Go" Weld for Birmingham (September 9, 2014)
Article: Guntersville woman in lawsuit over teeth whitening products (September 9, 2014)
Article: Businesses fight Alabama rules on teeth whitening Associated Press (September 4, 2014)
Article: Jefferson County judge hears arguments on constitutionality of Alabama teeth whitening services law (September 4, 2014)
Article: How teeth whitening could change the way the state does business The Huntsville Times (September 4, 2014)
Editorials: Des Moines Register’s Pulitzer Finalist series on licensing
Op-Ed: Teeth-Whitening Rules Take a Bite Out of Business The Wall Street Journal (April 30, 2013) 

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